In addition to conducting research, HSIS resources are also used to develop products that can be used by practitioners in the analysis of safety problems.
FHWA Pedestrian and Bicycle GIS Safety Analysis Tools
Geographic Information System (GIS) software turns statistical data such as accidents and geographic data such as roads and crash locations into meaningful information for spatial analysis and mapping. In this suite of pedestrian and bicycle safety tools, GIS-based analytical techniques have been applied to a series of pedestrian and bicycle safety issues. The tools included in this suite can be used to develop the following:
FHWA GIS Safety Analysis Tools
Computerized crash analysis systems in which crash data, roadway inventory data, and traffic operations data can be merged are used in many state and municipalities to identify problem locations and assess the effectiveness of implemented countermeasures. By integrating this traditional system with a geographical information system (GIS), which offers spatial referencing capabilities and graphical displays, a more effective crash analysis program can be realized. The analysis tools include five separate programs to evaluate crashes:
Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Analysis Tool (PBCAT)
The Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Analysis Tool (PBCAT) is a crash typing software product intended to assist state and local pedestrian/bicycle coordinators, planners and engineers with improving walking and bicycling safety through the development and analysis of a database containing details associated with crashes between motor vehicles and pedestrians or bicyclists. One of these details is crash type, which describes the pre-crash actions of the involved parties. After developing a database of crash information, PBCAT users can analyze the data, produce reports, and select countermeasures to address the problems identified by the software.
When a vehicle leaves the traveled way and encounters a pavement-shoulder drop-off, it can be difficult for the driver to return safely to the roadway. As the driver attempts to steer back onto the pavement, the side of the tire may scrub along the drop-off, resisting the driver's attempts. The safety edge is an innovative treatment intended to minimize drop-off-related crashes.
A road diet involves narrowing or eliminating travel lanes on a roadway to make more room for pedestrians and bicyclists. While there can be more than four travel lanes before treatment, road diets are often conversions of four-lane, undivided roads into three lanes — two through lanes plus a center turn lane. This study resulted in the development of crash modification factors for this engineering treatment.